One user reports seeing several visual issues on "multiple HP ProBook 450 G6" laptops after applying the update. Yet another user claims to have run into trouble with the driver on around 10-15 devices on a batch of 50 PCs that could potentially be affected.
@MicrosoftHelps After installing KB4517389, my PC display is going bonkers. It's all blank pages on Google Chrome. Transparency effect on the start menu, title bars and any window borders is pixelated.
— Sai Harish (@saiharish_k) October 14, 2019
Another person affected by the driver update brought the issue to the attention of Microsoft, through a Twitter post. So, Microsoft is at least aware of the situation, but has not indicated if it has verified the problem or is planning roll out a fix (it ultimately falls on Intel's shoulders to provide Microsoft with a fixed driver release).
If you are using Intel's integrated graphics and have run into wonky display issues after applying the latest driver, a temporary workaround is to roll back the driver to version 184.108.40.20619—some users have reported success doing this.
Fortunately, all of the issues have a limited reach in the grand scheme of things. For those affected, however, that comes as little consolation.