Scientists at the University of Bristol and the Technical University of Denmark have made an incredible breakthrough discovery. Researchers for the institutions have achieved quantum teleportation between two computer chips for the first time. They were able to send information from one chip to another, instantly, without the chips being physically or electronically connected.
The scientists say that the breakthrough opens the door for quantum computers and the quantum internet. The teleportation is possible thanks to a phenomenon called quantum entanglement, where two particles are so entwined that they can communicate over long distances. With quantum entanglement, changing the properties of one particle will cause the other to instantly change too.
Researchers say that the information is essentially teleported between the two particles. There is no theoretical limit to the distance across which quantum teleportation can operate. This mechanism is so mysterious that Albert Einstein dubbed it "spooky action at a distance." However, what troubled Einstein about the phenomena is that with our current understanding of physics, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. However, with quantum teleportation, information appears to break that speed limit.
If scientists can harness quantum teleportation, it would be beneficial for quantum computing. In the test, the team generated pairs of entangled photons on the chips and then made a quantum measurement of one photon. The observation changes the state of the photon, and those changes were instantly applied to the partner photon that was on the other chip.
The team programmed each of the chips to perform a range of demonstrations that used the entanglement. The most important of the demonstrations was a two-chip teleportation experiment where the individual quantum state of a particle was transmitted across the two chips after a quantum measurement was performed. The teleportation success rate was 91%, and some functions performed were essential for quantum computing. These essential functions included passing states between particles that have never directly interacted via a mediator and entangling as many as four protons together.
The first instance of Quantum Teleportation was performed last summer.